occasional meanderings in physics' brave new world

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Location: New Zealand

Marni D. Sheppeard

## Tuesday, February 03, 2009

### M Theory Lesson 258

A general unitary magic 1-circulant may be written as the sum of two magic 1-circulants, as in $(a,b,b) + (0,c,0)$.

The $n$-th power of this sum has a binomial expansion for which at least one matrix factor in each product has a power greater than or equal to $n/2$. Since $DM = D$ (where $D$ is the unitary democratic matrix), for any such 1-circulant $M$ it follows that the limit of the power as $n \rightarrow \infty$ must also be $D$. These arguments apply to matrices over restricted domains for the rationals or reals. Similar arguments apply to 2-circulants.

Now general magic unitary matrices that are written as sums of two circulants, such as the approximate norm square of the CKM matrix, may also be expanded binomially to a sum of products that converges to $D$.